How to Apply a Tourniquet

Basic emergency skills are a must-have to survive the perils you encounter in your backyard or in the wilderness. Certainly, modern medics carry bags full of gear, but what they do in lieu of the tools is what you should know for survival. First aid techniques aren’t in the textbooks. They’re tested survival skills passed down through medics generation. They’re simple, fast, and life-saving. In this article, we are going to explain in detail how to apply a tourniquet.

Over the years, use of tourniquets has caused so much debate in First Aid. They are comprehensive devices, usually soft and flexible. They are wrapped loosely around an injured arm or leg to control bleeding, and they have saved countless lives. They provide effective means that stop a catastrophic haemorrhage. You will need them whenever you have uncontrollable bleeding, an amputated limb, and multiple victims to address.

Making a Tourniquet
To make a tourniquet, you need material, windlass, and a secure mechanism. The material should be at least one inch in width. Make your tourniquet wide because narrow tourniquets are very dangerous and likely to be less effective. Good material options include a necktie, an ace bandage, a scarf, and a nylon webbing. Make sure the material you are using is non-stretchy.

#Step 1 – Position and Tie the Tourniquet Around the Wound
Tourniquets are bands used to control bleeding. They increase pressure to completely stop blood flow to a wound. Try using less damaging steps to control bleeding before using a tourniquet. Tie the tourniquet several inches above the injury, and use a common square knot. Don’t leave it on the wound for a long time because it can lead to severe tissue damage.

#Step 2 – Add a Windlass
Place a strong item on the knot to act as a windlass, which is a lever that will make the tourniquet tighter. Thereafter, tie the loose ends of the tourniquet in another square knot. You can use any item as a windlass, as long as it’s strong enough and can be secured in place. Some of the items you can use are spoons, pens, pipes, and sticks.

#3 – Twist the Windlass
To increase pressure, twist the windlass until bleeding stops. Tie the ends of the windlass to the arm or leg of the victim to secure it. If possible, you can put a “T” with the day or time on the forehead of the victim to mark the time the tourniquet was placed.

#Step 4 – Reassess the Wound
Once the tourniquet is complete, reassess the wound and confirm if bleeding has slowed down to an insignificant amount or has stopped. Thoroughly evaluate the victim to make sure there’s no other life-threatening bleeds. Furthermore, you can check for a pulse in the injured limb. Go ahead and note the time of tourniquet application, and await first responders or evacuate the victim to advanced care.

When using tourniquets, never use narrow strips or cords that could cut skin and muscle when tightened. Complications should be taken into account before using tourniquets to save someone’s life. When you’re addressing the victims, wear personal protective equipment and practice universal precautions. Use them in unsafe scenes when there’s no time to attempt less damaging steps to control bleeding.


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Bandaging Wounds

Why are dressings essential, you ask? Particularly when you
have bandages? How to bandage a wound? A few people inquire as to why we
have bandages when there are dressings.

Dressings are designed to such an extent that they assimilate the blood and
serum leaving the wound in the meantime keep up sterility around the wound.
Bandages then again are to increase the impact of dressings by holding them set
up and apply pressure where required. Dressings are designed and ought to be
connected such that they keep up an ideal hydration of the wound margins, i.e.
a wound should be excessively wet or dry.

Here is a tidbit of information about gauze. Gauze has been used for hundreds
of years by people and medical professionals. Not only does it absorb, but it
also allows moisture to escape. There are many varieties and sizes of gauze
dressings at your exposure. There are sponges, pads, strips, and the brown
gauze rolls designed to protect wounds. They are either woven or non woven. The
woven ones are made from cotton threads where the non-woven ones are from
pressed synthetic fibers to look like it has been woven.

It is basic practice to utilize non-disciple dressings on sutured or stapled
gashes. Particularly for the initial two days. This aids in appropriate
“epithelization” which like this forestalls sullying of the wound by
outer operators. Some inquire about, and doctors propose that antibiotic
treatments (polysporin, bacitracin and so on) help in diminishing infection in
a wound. Care ought to be that as it may, be taken when utilizing such
treatments and these ought to dependably be utilized after counsel with a

Scraped spots, for the most part, require being treated with an occlusive or
semi-occlusive antibiotic dressing. This could help in avoidance of infection
and lessen pain in the wound. It is the doctors’ activity and duty to educate
patients effectively and unmistakably for legitimate wound care, once released.
The wound, even after obvious repair ought to be kept spotless and dry. After
roughly two days a patient ought to have the capacity to clean the wound with
water and cleanser. Take care not to rub the wound dry. Wounds are sensitive
even after clear healing. Wound zones ought to be patted dry for quite a while.

It isn’t prompted that stuck wounds be kept wet for long. This implies a
patient ought not to indulge in anything that requires the wound to be
submerged in water for long. This appeal is useful for all wounds. On the off
chance that left wet for long, “dehiscence” of the wound may happen.
Doctors ought to likewise clarify the indications of infection to patients.
Facilities or healing centers more often than not have a pamphlet on wound look
after patients. Make use of this flyer and if there should arise an occurrence
of perplexity contact your doctor.

Doctors ought to likewise detail to patients the recurrence of the progress of
dressing, which ought to incorporate the sorts of dressings and bandages that
can be utilized or ought not to be utilized. Despite the fact that it is a
doctors occupation to manage and train a patient to appropriate wound care.
This does not exonerate patients from practicing some presence of mind when
tending to their wounds, for example, getting abundant rest, remaining
hydrated, keeping away from pointless exertion


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How to help someone in shock

Shock is a resultant of many factors. Such factors include loss of blood, traumatic events, allergic reactions, heatstroke, poisoning and both severe burns and infections. There is a reduced blood flow and oxygen supply in a person who is in shock. This causes a malfunction in the organs. Therefore, if untreated or managed at occurrence, it can cause permanent damage to all organs in the body. Having first aid knowledge is essential. This is especially when it occurs unexpectedly.

Signs and symptoms of shock

Knowledge is power and it has been said, better prevention than cure. Therefore it is important that you are aware of some symptoms of this condition. This will not only assist you in helping someone who is in shock from an accident but will also help avert the condition from occurring. Here are some of the signs that show someone is in shock from as a result of an accident:

��Pale skin

��Abnormal fatigue and weakness

��Increased size of eye’s pupils

��Rapid breathing

��Unexpected change of mood, anxious and agitation.


How to help someone who is in shock from an accident

Having known some of the signs and symptoms, you will then go ahead and ad monster some first aid techniques. Some of the first aid procedures you can administer to help someone who is in shock from an accident include the following;

��Lay the person down

The first step is to lay the person down ensuring that his or her head is not raised. Check for any head, neck and back injuries and in case he or she is not injured, lift his or her feet to a 12 inch position. Lastly, in cases where the person is vomiting or bleeding from his or her mouth, you are advised to turn them on their side.


The next step to helping someone in shock from an accident is to begin administering CPR. This is especially if he or she is showing signs or reduced and abnormally weak breathing. There are different CPR procedures for children and adults. Until the person in shock regain consciousness, you are advised to keep doing the CPR.

��Treat injuries

There are cases where the person in shock has some injuries on their head, neck and back. You are advised to treat the said injuries and also check for any broken bones.

��Keep the person comfortable

There are some simple steps you can perform to keep the person in shock warm and comfortable. Ensure that any restrictive cloth is loosened and use a blanket or any heavy material to cover them. You can also keep him or her still and only move them in cases of danger. Finally, comfort the person and do not allow them to eat or drink anything.


The repercussions of shock can be averted with first Aid techniques. It is important therefore, than first Aiders rush into a scene where someone has undergone shock. Similarly, family members are also advised to learn some first aid techniques. One other important first technique to administer to a person in shock is following up their condition once they are admitted at the hospital. Ensure that they are receiving the right amount of oxygen and fluids. The doctor will treat the person after diagnosing what caused the shock.

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How to Perform CPR

The implementation of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should be done by people trained for this, but since emergencies do not wait for instruction, at least cleaning these step-by-step instructions will help you prepare if you need to know how to perform CPR. If you want to receive CPR training and certification, you can get a certificate for CPR on the Internet or contact the local American Red Cross for certification classes. The steps of CPR are slightly different for infants and children than for adults. The following are steps to perform adult CPR:

Step one: make sure that you are not in danger. It’s nice to be ready to save the victim, but look at your surroundings to make sure that you yourself will not become a victim.

Step two: try to wake the victim. Call 911. If the victim moves, moans or shows signs of breathing, you do not need to perform CPR. In the field of medicine, achievements and improvements are constantly being improved. Surgery and procedures are performed differently than they were just a few years ago, reducing the amount of pain that patients experience, the amount of time that patients remain in the hospital after surgery, and the amount of time it takes to restore the patient from surgery. This is just one example of how knowledge and achievements have improved the field of medicine. Hands-only CPR is another example of how medicine has improved and improved.

Step Three: Check if the victim was hurt. Tilt the victim’s head gently and put your ear to the affected mouth to feel and listen for breathing. At the same time, look at the chest to see if any movement from breathing occurs. If the victim breathes, you do not need to perform CPR.

Step Four: If there is no breath, start rescue breathing. Make sure that the victim’s airway is open, tilting his head back. Pinch the victim’s nose, make a seal on the mouth of the victim’s mouth (or use the CPR mask if you have one) and blow the breath into the victim’s mouth to see how the chest rises. When the chest falls, repeat the repeated breath.

Step Five: Start compressing the chest by placing the heel of your hand on the middle of the victim’s chest and tighten the fingers with the other hand, placing the other hand on the upper arm. Push the chest approximately 1.5-2 inches and allow the chest to fully go back before giving another squeeze. Give 30 compressions, counting “one thousand, two thousand, three thousand” to make sure that you make them at the correct rate.

Step Six: repeat the breathing breath for two breaths, turn your head to open the airway, and immediately give the first breath without first checking for breathing. When the chest rises and returns to its normal position, give a second wind.

Step seven: repeat the compression of the chest and give 30 compressions.

Step Eight: Repeat emergency breathing and chest compression steps for about two minutes or until the emergency service arrives.

Step Nine: After two minutes, tilt the victim’s head back and put your ear to your mouth to check your breathing. Look for the rise and fall of the chest. If the victim breathes, do not continue CPR. If the victim is still not breathing, continue CPR with rescue breaths and chest compression until help arrives.

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The Heimlich Maneuver

Save Lives With the Heimlich Maneuver.
Many people accidentally choke on food or other substances. In the United States, this has become the fifth leading cause of death with more than 4,000 victims each year – most of them children.

What happens during suffocation is that the larynx or breathing tube of the victim is difficult, causing this person to suffocate. Without help, the victim can not breathe and die. While I was in the army, I twice performed Heimlich’s maneuver twice, in both cases I saved a person’s life, because I was properly prepared for First Aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), basic life support (WLS) and also to Heimlich’s maneuver and knew how to react to the situation. The first step is the recognition that someone is choking. Once you know that someone is joking, you need to find out whether the victim can breathe, if the victim can breathe on his own, you need to let them try to remove the object that settled in the throat. If the object gets bigger on their throat, and the victim gets to where he or she can not breathe, this is when you need to start preparing for the Heimlich maneuver.

Fortunately, Heimlich’s maneuver sharply reduced these deaths. This rescue equipment is named after Henry J. Heimlich, an American doctor, and surgeon whose interests include eating disorders.

“Having received his education at the Cornell School of Medicine, Heimlich made his first job in New York and then moved to Cincinnati, where, since 1971, he was a professor of advanced clinical sciences at Xavier University. His publications include books on breast and animal surgery. which he is known for, is shown in his 1976 film “How to save a gasping victim: Heimlich’s maneuver,” according to Thad Thule in “Namesakes: an entertaining guide to the origin of more than 300 words called People.”

Not everyone knows Heimlich’s maneuver. But this simple method can mean the difference between the life and death of a suffocating victim. Here’s how:

“The first assistant stands behind a suffocating victim, grasps both hands around his waist, squeezes his hand behind his wrist and presses against the stomach just below the ribs. This maneuver compresses the lungs and displaces a piece of meat or another choking, “explained the late Dr. Morris Fishbein in his” Popular Illustrated Medical Encyclopedia. ”

If the victim lies and fainted, Fishbein, a former editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, said Heimlich’s maneuver could be performed as follows:

“The rescuer kneels down in front of the victim’s thighs. Hands are placed one above the other with a heel of the underside, covered between the chest and the navel. Rapid movement forward and upwards causes air from the lungs. This excludes the object blocking – he said.

The same technique can be applied to infants and children in this way:

“Sit on your knees, facing your face. Place the tips of the two fingers of each side by side slightly above his navel. Press gently but firmly up, “said the editors of the Traveler’s First Aid Guide, published by Reader’s Digest in cooperation with the British Red Cross Society.

Touching the nape of the suffocating victim will not help this person. But three or four hard slaps on the back between the shoulders can knock out anything that interferes with his or her wind.

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